Understanding Oil and Wax Finishes

Understanding Oil and Wax Finishes

Learn how to apply oil and wax wood finishes.

Many woodworkers turn to oil and wax finishes for their first attempt at finishing, and for good reason. They are easy to apply, give almost foolproof results, require no applicators beyond a rag and leave wood looking both rich and natural. Turners especially love them because they adapt perfectly to finishing wood still turning on the lathe.

If there is one Achilles’ heel these popular finishes suffer from, it is their lack of durability. You would probably not choose a simple oil or wax finish for a bar top or kitchen table that will be assaulted with scratches, hot coffeepots or strong solvents, but they are perfect for bookcases, jewelry boxes, turnings, picture frames, blanket chests and a host of similar objects. While a wax finish can go on any type of wood, avoid putting oil (or Danish oil) on aromatic cedar or any of the dalbergia woods (rosewood, cocobolo, tulipwood). These woods contain an antioxidant that will prevent the oil from curing.

Wax Finish

wax finishes

Sold in liquid, paste, and solid stick forms, waxes are formulated in a host of colors. You’ll find them in clear, amber, a range of wood tones and even white. Some waxes are softer, some are harder, but even the hardest waxes are softer than lacquers and varnishes. The fact that they are soft means they offer very little protection against scratches and wear. Waxes are derived from a variety of mineral, vegetable and animal sources. As a finish, waxes don’t penetrate wood, but rather sit atop it. They will prevent it from oxidizing (turning gray) but don’t particularly enhance the wood. In other words, once a coat of clear wax dries on the wood, it will look like freshly cut, but unfinished, wood.

Liquid or paste wax typically contains some solvent, and the wax “cures” as the solvent evaporates. Virtually all waxes will dissolve in mineral spirits or naphtha, which is handy to know should you ever need to remove wax, either from wood or on top of a finish. Most waxes melt at very low temperatures, so they don’t offer much in the way of heat resistance. However, they do shed water, which helps them resist food and drink spills. You can apply wax over any other finish and it will give the surface a soft sheen and smooth feel, but don’t put other finishes over wax. To apply liquid or paste wax, simply rub it on and wipe it off. A Scotchbrite™ pad or fine steel wool makes a good applicator; then wipe with paper shop towels. If you wipe the wax off immediately, it will leave a dull sheen as it dries. For more shine, let it dry, then buff it with a soft cloth.

Oil Finish


Oil is made of molecules small enough to seep down into the wood rather than merely sit on top. As a result, oil makes wood look richer and more translucent without adding a film on the surface. There are two different types of oils that woodworkers use: drying and non-drying oils. Drying oils will change from liquid to a solid film when exposed to oxygen in the air. Nut oils (boiled linseed, tung, etc.) are drying oils, but vegetable (peanut, olive) and mineral oils are non-drying. Edible mineral oil is popular on food contact items, like cutting boards. However, non-drying oils stay wet indefinitely, and they will wash off when the board is scrubbed with soap and water. Because they do not dry to a solid film, non-drying oils are considered a wood treatment, but not a finish. The most common and least expensive of the drying oils is boiled linseed oil. Tung oil dries a little bit faster than linseed oil, and sometimes it is modified to cure even more quickly.

To apply an oil finish, flood it onto the wood, adding extra to keep the surface wet in areas where the oil is quickly absorbed. After 10 minutes, wipe off everything that has not been absorbed. For a smoother, richer finish, repeat the process, this time sanding the oily wood with fine wet-and-dry sandpaper. This will create a slurry of oil and wood dust, filling tiny pores and leaving the surface even smoother.

Danish Oil Finish Mixes Oil and Poly


Danish oil, often lumped in as an oil finish, is actually a thin oil and varnish mixture. The oil helps bring out wood’s beauty, while the varnish resin offers somewhat more protection against chemicals, heat, scratches and stains than either oil or wax. Typical of this group is Watco®, both the oldest and best-selling. Many woodworkers create their very first finish using Watco and return to it frequently. It comes in a variety of colors as well as natural (clear). The directions on the can are excellent: Apply it liberally to the wood, let it soak in for 15 minutes, reapply, then wipe off the surface. Use Watco either as a one-coat penetrating finish, or to add as many subsequent coats as you like. Applied no more than one coat per day, you can build up a finish as thick, beautiful, and durable as varnish, with no brushes to clean or brush marks to rub out. The good news is that a multi-coat Watco finish is durable enough for most anything you make, even kitchen cabinets or a dining room table.

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  • Brooke Pridemore

    Very thorough. Thanks for the knowledge!

  • Alexander Snay

    I wish I knew about oils two days ago before I tried to put polyurethane on my project. Now I have a mess of not looking good wood.

  • Vx 777

    Great I was looking for oil for a homemade table, I am going to try Danish oil

  • Chris Wurster

    Novice question… I made a table from reclaimed barn wood. Treated it with mineral oil and thought it looked great. Problem is… Anything I put in the table is wicking the oil out. Do I need to coat over it with wax or Polly. Or do I have another option. Thank you!!

    • celavi Mate

      Hey Chris,
      I have this same exact problem!

      Did you make any successful progress to deal with this issue??? I am hoping to stay away from poly, but am looking for any advice to finally seal in that oil once and for all so that every piece of paper doesn’t wick it up.

      Hope some experts can chime in with some suggestions after dealing a dining room table (oak butcher block style) treated with mineral oil.

      Very much appreciated.

  • OKAY… I am truly hoping somebody is reading these questions since the last one was posted many months ago… I need help!!!! Can wood that has been oiled receive a coat of polyurethane afterwards? I accidentally spilled some citronella oil (the mosquitos were driving me mad!) on a beautiful piece of mesquite which is already sanded and ready for stain/polyurethane. (It will be used in an outdoor covered patio area)
    Is it ruined????

    • Peter W

      It will be difficult to make the surface even in colour if the spill was just in one place. I might be tempted to oil the whole top in citronella to the same contamination level. Then after a day or two use pure turpentine to leach out as much as possible with plenty of dry rags. After a few more days drying it should then take a thin clear poly or preferably danish oil finish – one very thin coat per day. However now its oily you cannot stain it. Live with the colour!

    • jtakes

      See the Questions and Answers section of Woodworker’s Journal eZine 383 for a detailed answer to this question: http://www.woodworkersjournal.com/oily-mesquite-ruined/

      – Joanna Takes, Woodworker’s Journal

  • Ron

    I need some advice. I am making a coffee table with polished stone and copper inlay flush with the table top. I am a complete noobie at this and i am not sure what to use to finish the top. Is there any product that will adhere to the wood stone and copper without flaking off? Please help. I have searched the internet for a week and cannot find an answer. I even wrote to minwax and they said they have no such product.
    Thanks ,

  • Summer Hogan

    It is okay to cover the Danish Oil with polyurethane, particularly on kitchen cabinets, correct? Thanks in advance!

    • Robert Wolf

      Yes, because watco Danish oil is a mixture of polyurethane and oil. Lightly scuff the surface of the cabinets with a 400 grit sandpaper for better adhesion. I prefer to apply the polyurethane with a lint free rag. Make sure you are using oil based polyurethane because the water based junk won’t cure well over the Danish oil.

      Don’t forget to wear gloves, mask and eye protection and keep the kitchen well ventilated. ( I put a box fan in the window facing out and use blue painters tape and card board to seal the edges between the fan and the window casing. Also open a window on the other side of the house. This will cause a cross draft and draw those nasty fumes out the window. )

      If you have children its advised that you put plastic up in the kitchen doorways to create a bubble around the room. This will help to contain the VOC vapors.

      Respirator mask with organic vapor cartridges is highly recommended.

    • Robert Wolf


  • Ingrid Kiss

    how do you remove an antiquing wax finish for example from a rustic oak piece if you realize only after applying that you need to sand the surface more…?

    • Robert Wolf

      Sand through it. :). I’ve done this with my random orbital sander. Gums the paper a bit but it works.

  • joshua bratt

    I’m putting tung oil on a sycamore log and noticing that the end grain is soaking up the first coat like a sponge, (first coat was a half and half mix of pure tung oil and turpentine) with that mix, should i saturate the end grain multiple times until it stops taking the thinned oil? The sides of the log only took a normal coat to reach saturation.

  • Justin Haaheim

    SO HELPFUL. Thank you for writing this!

    I’m using 100% tung oil to finish an IKEA butcher block oak counter top. It’s going on well and seems to be soaking in, but after 5 days and 3 coats it still doesn’t seem to be very water resistant/repellant. Is this normal? Will that change as the oil continues to dry?

    Has anyone had experience with IKEA’s Behandla wood treatment oil? The formulation I saw at the store is tung oil, linseed oil, methylcellulose, lead free drying agent, plant-based emulsifier, water. Is that likely to dry any faster, or provide any stronger/more waterproof of a finish?

    • Robert Wolf

      I would use a mineral oil/ bees wax combination to further waterproof this finish. 4:1 oil to wax ratio. Heat the oil in a pan on low and add the wax. Throughly coat and let dry for 24 hours. …repeat. By the third day it should have a nice coat. I use a palm sized car buffer to polish the surface to a shine and remove any extra wax from the surface.

      • PolymathX

        This is good advice.

  • Rebecca

    Can you please tell me, if I were to use Danish oil on internal hardwood stair railings, would I be able to at a later date varnish over them? Also how much care and maintenance would they need using Danish oil?

    • Saltwoods

      @Rebecca – yes, you will be able to varnish over oil. It just needs to be thoroughly dry, which would certainly be the case after about 2 days. We reapply oil to our tables every 5-8 months; table do see more traffic and usage so with stair railings I think once every year to 18months should be sufficient. Dan at Saltwoods.com

  • Judy

    I just did a minwax finishing wax finish on my table, it was on old dry wood, I feel like the table is so dry it is just absorbing the wax and I may need to do at least a 3rd coat of wax, it’s getting water rings and is not repelling water, any recommendation on a different or better wax?

  • JJW

    I have a natural oak dining table. No finish, just a wax coat. We got a white heat mark on it from a hot plate. We do not want to put a finish on it but we do want to get rid of the heat marks. What would you recommend to get rid of it?

    • PolymathX

      Try 0000 steel wool, and when I say 0000, make really really sure it has 4 zeros. If the heat mark is mostly on the surface, you might get lucky.

  • shirleydrodgers

    I have a dining table that I believe is close to 100 years old. It looked like it possibly had an oil rub originally, but nothing after that. After carefully washing and sanding, I applied Watco oil finish with a dark walnut tint. It has been 3 days and the oil hasn’t dried yet. What should I do?

    • Saltwoods

      @ shirlydrodgers – have no fear, the danish oil will dissipate as time goes on as there is one part alcohol in it. Your wood may simply have some ‘fatty/oily’ areas or content to it in which is no taking the danish oil as quickly. Ideally, you want to wipe and or buff oil about 15min after applying it to remove excess. This will also give it a nice luster. Cheers and good luck. Dan from Saltwoods.com

  • Dana B

    I’m refinishing/reupholstering dining room chairs for my brother—this is my first true attempt at either. I sanded everything down, applied two light coats of an espresso stain, and then two coats of boiled linseed oil (without any sanding). I’m very happy with the color and the natural wood look. HOWEVER, I’m concerned that the oil has not gone into the wood enough to do its job. I’m considering either applying another coat of oil (I would prefer not to have to do that as I’ve applied a layer of batting on the seat cushion already and stapled down) or adding a wax layer on top. My concern with the wax layer is that it will not maintain the really natural look I’m going for. Any suggestions would be much appreciated.

    He is single and owns his own home, not pets, no kids… point being that these will not be subject to a ton of wear and tear for the next few years at least.

    • PolymathX

      Just linseed without wax will always require maintenance and re-application a couple times a year, with occasional sanding to boot. That’s the nature of oil finishes. Just try to apply a few more coats, a couple days apart. You can apply a very thin layer, being careful to avoid contact with the batting, just wipe it off after a few hours. Sand between applications with a 400+ grit sandpaper. Let the final coat dry fully (may take up to a month) before applying a wax. Let the wax dry, then buff. The wax coat will prevent the wood from absorbing or loosing moisture, which will keep it from “graining” and looking aged after a year like the oil finish by itself would do.

  • Carla Marie

    I just moved into an apartment where the cabinets were treated with Dutch oil. However, it is sticky to touch and the old dirty finger marks weren’t cleaned off first. How can I fix this?

  • Sharon Genzen Boyle

    I have a piece of pine furniture with no finish that is very dry and has cracked. What type of oil should I use to moisturize the wood again?

    • Depends on the extent of the damage. You could try filling the cracks with fine sawdust + wood glue first and sanding it flat then applying tung oil.

  • Carla Marie

    Robert, thank you!

  • Chris

    Hi, I’m having my first attempt at building a kitchen and it’s going great (so far).

    I’ve bought a solid oak worktop and tried oiling it with a solvent free oil from ikea. It’s giving the colour that we want but not the matte sheen. I do have a can of Danish oil but due to bad weather outside and crappy ventilation inside(plus a wife that suffers with asthma) I don’t know if Danish oil would be advisable.

    Being new to wood finishing and having never used Danish oil before, I don’t know if all of the warning labels are just to cover their back or if there is something to it?


    • Superior danish oil shouldn’t have solvents or anything in it to make it dry quicker. Danish oil can be an allergen though.

  • Momofgirls

    Would you recommend oiled and waxed finish to finish the interior of a walnut door? We have a new entry door that is walnut on the interior (aluminum clad exterior). We have dogs but they don’t generally jump up on the door.

    • Arizore

      Wax! Never!! Oil is essential for the exterior side of doors, every six moths for a few years. Especially if it’s an old door, oil helps keep water out of the joints and cracks. I make a plastic pan under the door bottom by making a ring or “dam” of towels or rags around the door bottom. Shim the plastic up with cardboard or towels so the pan is nearly touching the door bottom. Fill this temporary pan with enough oil (a pint is usually enough if you make a close-fitting pan) to cover the bottom half inch of the door. Let it sit for an hour while the oil wicks up into the door. Then use the oil still in the pan to oil the upper part of the door, especially the joints. See Woodrescue.com

  • Angrie Nole

    Hi I came across a really beautiful piece (slab) of Sissoo Rosewood I want to hang it on the wall as it is so big and natural. I saw where you advised against using oils to bring out the beauty. So in lieu of oils what product would you put on it to enhance the grains and colors? Like i said this is literally going up on a wall as a piece of artwork!

  • Brian

    I’m finishing a piece of furniture I built and I painted the base of the piece white (not chalk paint – basic interior latex paint) and I was going to apply a wax finish. I’ve read numerous places about both wax and poly finishes adding a yellow tint to the finish which I’d like to avoid. Any suggestions on the best way to have the best protective finish but still keep the color my nice bright white? Clear poly? White Wax?

  • Sue Walsh Baldowski

    I am refinishing an apothecary drawer cabinet. I have it all sanded down to the wood. Not sure what type of wood it is but, I want to keep it natural color. What do you suggest I finish with? I don’t want to stain it as I like the look/color of it. Should I just use polyurethane or Danish oil? Thanks, appreciate any help!

    • Laura Occhi

      i am using deft brand bbrushing laquer. it has brought out the beauty in the wood for this coffee tablle made with walnut and maple. the first picture is the legs showing the contrast of the before and after when applying the clear laquer finish. having read this artical i wish i would have used danish oil for the simplicity of it to achieve the same results (I think it would have ut not certain). although the laquer finish is not yet done as it has to cure and then be rubbed out it still has provided a beautiful appearance to the natural unstained wood and will last for years to come. if the danish oil would achieve the same end result with out the hassels involved with the laquer then i will in future use the danish oil over the laquer. either way you go the wood will definately achieve the stained look to an extent as the natural color is brought out with the clear finish.

      1st image is legs showing contrast of laquer on one
      2nd image is table prior to laquer clear coat
      3rd image is table curing after applying several coats of laquer over 2 weeks

  • kate kincade

    do edible oils turn rancid? like shea oil on a dinning table?

    • Better to use something like pure tung oil for a dining table with a bees wax finish.

  • Clark Bradley

    We are redoing the inside of our back porch with cherry that was cut off of our property and was wondering if it would be best to use a product like Watco Danish oil on the walls or a wax coating to keep the walls looking nice

    Thanks for any help and thoughts

  • Mrk

    I am finishing a walnut island top with Tung oil. Can I use beeswax overtop of it and if so can I then use Tung oil again after when it needs to be reoiled?

    • No the oil won’t adhere to the wood if there’s still wax on top. Just make sure your wood is sufficiently oiled and it shouldn’t need re-oiling any time soon – if it has a wax coat on top. This could also depend on the wood. A hardwood will retain the oil but a wide grain softwood might continue to absorb the oil into the grain.

  • myfullcents

    If wax has been applied to unfinished wood can you place a oil finish over the top? This finish was done out of order and hope it can be rectified.

    • Sigurt Bladt Dinesen

      No. Better to remove the wax first.

  • MagiBroom

    Hi! Is there a way to figure out what finish is on a dining room table? It’s either oak, cherry or mahogany, and somehow got small scratches from dusting, that can be seen from an angle. i tried to buff with 0000steel wool.. seemed to move around a sludgy looking finish.. kinda improved appearance. Scratches still there. I did that and wiped with tack cloth. Originally has a matte look to it. I think someone used orange glo on it and it did something bad.. weakened the finish, perhaps? Thanks for any tips!

  • libraryKAT

    Is there a way to remove a wax finish from furniture? My dad waxed a small kitchen table for me and it is too delicate for actual kitchen use.

    • You could probably sand it down by hand to get it back to bare wood!

  • Jeannette Moore

    I just spent a couple weeks removing and sanding a damaged rosewood table top after Hurricane Matthew. I am ready to either oil or wax the top but after reading this article I’m not sure what to use (it is very dry after stripping and sanding). I want to accentuate the beautiful woodgrain patterns and not change the color. This will be an infrequently used dining table but is the first thing you see when you come in my house.

    • Bob McKee

      Use three coats of Watco oil. The natural will not obscure the grain or change the color, only deepen it a bit. If you want extra protection, Watco also makes a wipe on polyurethane that is available in a satin finish which has a natural look. It can be applied after a few days of curing the oil finish.

  • Marty Neumeier

    What is best for rosewood? I imported a table from India and it has begun cracking in the dry winter climate where I live. I’m looking to give it a treatment is something to moisten it up, but am confused about what is best. Thanks

  • konstantinos m.

    Hi, thank you for a very useful and insightful post!

    I am wondering what makes a wood finish glossy or matte. I am about to create some products that will be in direct contact with the skin, so they need to be skin-friendly and I want to maintain a matte finish in my products since it look more natural.

    Any advise would be very appreciated!
    Thank you!

  • Nathan Ast

    Are you able to stain and then wax over it? I made a fir wood ring (I know it’s really soft wood) and would like to stain it then wax it and I don’t know if it is a good idea or not.

  • Kevin Sims

    I have a cedar wood mailbox post. It is looking a little dry and has lost some luster. What will bring back its original luster and protect the wood at the same time?

  • steve simon

    I am using rough-cut eastern hemlock board and batten to side a timber-frame shed and cypress for window casing and fascia boards. Although I like the current color of the mixed woods, I’m not sure I can maintain it (I prefer using a danish oil finish). I am also considering just letting the wood age to ‘grey barnwood’ and then treating, but am unsure if the wood will hold up that long (rot?). Any suggestions?

  • there is hope

    Can I use a oil rather than wax on a doll house that has small wood shingles

  • Elizabeth Bellot

    A carpenter friend has recommended Danish Oil to finish our oak skirtings & doors, but we’re confused as to what we should be buying. Our local builders merchants stocks Birdbrand Danish Oil which I understand is a Tung Oil & Resin mix. Is this suitable and can we reapply if it were to become damaged e.g. scuffed by toy cars etc?

  • Irene Ennis

    I have a redwood burl table that I recently sanded with 220/320 to remove water marks. I then used Watco Natural wood oil to finish it. The surface is not as glossy as it used to be. Do I need to buff it? And if so with what? Will just buffing make it glossier?

  • International Golf

    Why can I scrape wax off with fingernail?

  • Anna

    Hi and thank you for this great piece.

    I have an old and very rustic oak table that had some kind of wax finish. The wax got sticky in one spot after being exposed to a lot of heat so I actually stripped the entire table top. I left the table legs as they were but didn’t want discoloring on the surface from two different type of waxes. I scraped the top completely clean with a scraper and a heat gun. It was hard to get off. The wax finish was quite thick and very durable. Now my thinking was to wax the table top again since the previous finish seemed to withstand almost anything but as I am reading about wax that does not seem to be the general opinion on wax. Am I missing some special wax blend that could create this more durable surface? Do you have any advise on what to use? I am at a loss and the table weighs a ton so I can’t really take it to woodworkers to get their opinion.
    Many thanks

  • aces

    I have headphones with a narrow ring shaped like saturns rings piece of bamboo that is prone to crack. It’s about 3 cm thick. Will oil protect the wood from cracking due to the natural changes in temp and humidity?